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Commissioning of Blended Fuel Production Machine in Ecuador

Another GlobeCore machine was commissioned on 13-17 January in Guayaquil, Ecuador.

This time our engineers commissioned a 10 cubic meter per hour USB fuel blending machine.

The problem of atmospheric pollution is important for Ecuador, and the government is increasing environmental protection measures and standards. A complete transition to alternative fuels requires a comprehensive upgrade of fuel systems, which does not seem possible at this time. The optimal solution is production of blended fuel using components with a smaller environmental footprint. The USB machine can blend from two to five liquids to make a fuel that can be used in existing engines without modifications and has the same or better performance.

Mr. Wildkad Rodriguez, a representative of the client, made this comment on the commissioning, “After the environmental standards had been increased, we ran into problems with sulfur dioxide SO2 emissions. We now use the USB to make fuel from two ingredients. The other component is not only more environmentally friendly, but is also less expensive. We now achieve several objectives at once: maintain efficiency, reduce emissions and decrease costs. The USB is an outstanding machine. It meets our requirements quite well”.

GlobeCore biodiesel reactors started working in the Philippines

GlobeCore biodiesel reactors started working in the Philippines

End of February this year, the commissioning team of our company went to Lucena in the Philippines, to work on launching two biodiesel reactors.

The Philippines  is a country that does not possess oil resources, therefore has a policy ensuring the development and production of alternative fuels. Local biodiesel production from coconut oil is expected to grow every year.

Two biodiesel reactors set into operation in Lucen run on continuous flow operation each with capacity 6,25 m3/h. The new GlobeCore reactors replaced the old batch system of three reactors, and made it possible to increase the efficiency of the biodiesel production.

Among the distinguishing features of GlobeCore biodiesel plants are:

  • great versatility (biodiesel can be produced from a variety of raw materials – animal fats, vegetable oils, algae, etc.);
  • energy efficiency;
  • high productivity;
  • mobility;
  • ease of operation.

CMM-4/7 started up in Estonia

April 10, 2017 GlobeCore specialists started up a CMM-4/7 unit in Tallinn (Estonia).

This equipment is used by business engaged in installation, repair and operation of power transformers for degassing and filtration of insulating oil. Also, the units can be used to heat oil-filled electrical appliances with hot oil, for vacuum dehydration and evacuation of transformers.

CMM-4/7 thermal vacuum processing obtains the following oil parameters:

  • moisture content  by weight below 5 g / t;
  • filtration  fineness below 5 microns;
  • volumetric gas content below 0.1%;
  • dielectric strength, minimum 70 kV.

By choosing a CMM-4/7 unit you get a compact, easy-to-maintain and operate equipment that can be used effectively at the site. Please receive consultation by contacting our managers at corresponding page of our site.

Biodiesel production from waste fats

Biodiesel production. Nowadays, the term “biodiesel” is vague. Originally it was used as a name for a mixture of fuel oil and vegetable oil in a ratio of 70-95% / 30-5%.

Now it is a term for fuel made of animal or vegetable fats by transesterification.

The use of biodiesel as fuel reduces the amount of almost all harmful substances released into the atmosphere typical of petroleum fuels. Being natural in origin, it has a low toxicity and is safe for plants and animals if released into the environment. Biodiesel is completely biodegradable in water and soil. It is recycled to 99% after 28 days.

Also worth mentioning are the good mixing properties of vegetable oil esters with petroleum diesel. The obtained blends do not separate even in dissolved water.

Other advantages of biodiesel fuels:

  •        Due to the chemical composition, biodiesel has good mixing properties that are not affected even by fuels containing sulphur;
  •        Cetane number of 51;
  •        High flash point (over 150º), which makes biodiesel relatively safe;
  •        The presence of oxygen improves combustion efficiency;
  •        Increasing engine life by 60%.

As the main raw material for biodiesel production plants, such as rapeseed, soybean, canola, castor, nettle spurge, are used. The research is still going on about the production of biodiesel from nut, cotton and hemp oil and walnut kernels. Also the raw material for biodiesel production includes waste vegetable oil, waste animal fats, fish oil, algae etc.

GlobeCore uses the principle of jet hydrodynamic ultrasonic high frequency controlled cavitation in the production of biodiesel.

This technology shows a decisive competitive advantage of the resulting product and the speed of transesterification.

The traditional methods of biodiesel production are based on oil being heated to 70 ° C, which requires high energy expenses. In addition it needs recovery of excess methanol and additional transesterification. Vacuum drying leads to considerable power consumption.

The hydrodynamic cavitation treatment does not consume a lot of energy, and actually saves energy costs by a factor of ten. It does not require installation of expensive dosing pumps: the ejector pulls the required amount of components to be mixed in the unit.

The UBD unit by GlobeCore can be used at facilities specializing in the production of biodiesel, as well as oil refining and food factories, or at small farms.

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel

alternative fuel

Alternative fuel. An increase in the number of cars has led to a growing demand for petroleum products. But the oil reserves are estimated to last only a few decades, thus forcing to actively search for alternative fuels.

Depletion of oil reserves will have a significant impact on the transport sector. That’s why so much attention is paid to alternative fuels, especially biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils.

Biodiesel is the most promising alternative fuel due to the following reasons:

  • Biodiesel can be used in existing diesel engines without structural changes;
  • Biodiesel is produced exclusively from plant components, it contains no sulfur, aromatics, metals and oil residues;
  • Biodiesel is a fuel with oxygen. It produces less emissions of carbon monoxide and gases compared with conventional diesel fuel;
  • Biodiesel does not affect global warming, CO2 (carbon dioxide) is absorbed by plants, in contrast to fossil fuels.
  • Biodiesel has better lubricity compared with diesel fuel;
  • Biodiesel is produced from renewable vegetable oils and animal fats and hence increases the fuel safety and economic independence.

The research shows that it is possible to use vegetable oil in its natural form, but it is not recommended. The high viscosity and low volatility of vegetable oil affects fuel distribution in the cylinder, resulting in incomplete combustion and heavy deposits in piston ring grooves. To reduce the viscosity of vegetable oil, it is blended with diesel fuel, emulsified and mixed with methanol for transesterification.

A significant number of studies were conducted on combustion, production and performance of vegetable oil and methyl (ethyl) ester, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, palm oil, soybean and canola oil.

Vegetable oils are naturally present in plants, also known as triglycerides of fatty acids. Their molecular weight is about 800 kg / m3 or more. Because of their high molecular weight, the oils have high viscosity, which causes a serious problem when used as fuel. These molecules must be broken down into smaller molecules, to have lower viscosity and other properties to be closer to the standard diesel fuel. The change in oil composition can be achieved by pyrolysis, microemulsification, blending and transesterification.

The most commonly used commercial process of producing high-quality and environmentally friendly vegetable based fuel oil, ie biodiesel, is transesterification.

The transesterification of biodiesel is a reaction of triglycerides with alcohols (methyl, ethyl or the like) and catalysts at controlled temperature. The final products are alkyl esters and glycerin. Alkyne esters have favorable properties to be used as fuel in the biodiesel engines as the main products, and glycerin is a byproduct.

GlobeCore Cooperation With the US Power Industry

GlobeCore strives to participate in all possible projects to replace traditional energy sources with alternatives.

Some of the services GlobeCore offers our clients is the sales of equipment to process electrical insulation oil and servicing power transformers, as well as rentals of this equipment.

It was the latter option that was chosen by one of American electric power companies to service the transformers of their wind farms in Virginia.

GlobeCore was contracted to rent two CMM-4/7 units. The product is designed to degas, dehydrate, filter and heat the oil for 1150 kV transformers.

The CMM-4/7 can also be used to heat oil-filled electrical equipment with hot transformer oil, vacuum-dry transformers and pull vacuum on external equipment

GlobeCore products extend the lifetime of wind farm transformers and improve reliability of alternative power generation.

Production of Biodiesel

biodiesel reactor

Vegetable oil (sunflower, rapeseed, flax, etc.) is the main raw material for production of biodiesel.  The type of oil used gives some particular properties to the final product.  For example, rapeseed oil-based biodiesel has a relatively low calorific value and high pour point and filterability.

Generally speaking, the process of biodiesel production is aimed at the reduction of vegetable oil viscosity.  This effect can be achieved using various methods.

The composition of vegetable oil includes triglycerides (esters, connected to a glycerol molecule) and trihydric alcohol.  Glycerol is mainly responsible for viscosity and density. Making biodiesel involves removing of this component by displacing it with alcohol.  This process is called transesterification.

A positive feature of biodiesel is the possibility to use waste vegetable oil for production.  The primary product must be pre-filtered to remove impurities and water.  In the case when water is not completely removed, there is a risk that transesterification reaction will be replaced with hydrolysis of triglycerides.  This is very undesirable since at the output we’ll get not biodiesel, but fatty acid salts.

The general scheme of biodiesel production looks as follows.  Vegetable oil is heated to a certain temperature, after which it is mixed with alcohol and catalyst.  In some cases, acid is used to accelerate the reactions.  The resulting mixture should be stirred and settled.  Then the mixture should break down into layers: the upper layer is biodiesel, the middle layer is soap, and the lower layer is glycerol.

The other layers are separated from biodiesel and then it should be washed to remove soap residues, catalysts and other undesirable impurities.  This is followed by drying with magnesium sulfate.  The drying agent is removed by conventional filtration.

Mathematics of biodiesel production is simple enough: if you have one ton of vegetable oil, 111 kg of alcohol and 12 kg of catalyst agent, the output can amount to 970 kg of biodiesel and 153 kg of glycerin.

The color of good biodiesel should resemble the color of honey, while glycerin is darker.  If waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock, the resulting glycerin is usually brown and may solidify at the temperature of 38°C.  If using fresh vegetable oil, glycerin remains liquid even at lower temperatures.

Visual inspection and control of pH is used to evaluate the quality of the resulting biodiesel.  Externally, quality biodiesel should be similar to pure sunflower oil, should not contain any impurities, suspended solids and contaminants, as well as turbidity. If turbidity is present, this means that the product contains water, and it must be removed by heating.

GlobeCore offers UBT-type plants, designed to produce biodiesel.  This equipment works based on hydrodynamic ultrasonic high frequency controlled cavitation principle.  This makes it possible to achieve significant advantages:

  • Minimum feedstock requirements.
  • Instantaneous transesterification reaction.
  • No need for washing and drying of biodiesel.
  • Minimal power consumption.
  • Compact dimensions and flexibility in plant design.

Vegetable-Based Fuel for Diesel Engines

Fuel for Diesel Engines

Vegetable-based fuel is the name for biodiesel, plant oil and other plant-derived liquids that can be burnt in engine cylinders.  Biodiesel is the most popular fuel in the European market.

In those countries where this type of fuel is not used yet, it is possible to implement a gradual transition by mixing biodiesel with petroleum products of mass consumption.

The following mixture can be applied in practice:

  • Biodiesel with diesel fuel;
  • Biodiesel with methanol;
  • Plant oil with diesel fuel;
  • Adding vegetable-based additives to diesel fuel.

Biodiesel + Diesel fuel

Adding biodiesel to diesel fuel can increase its density, viscosity and flash point in closed crucible.  The subsequent increase in the concentration of biodiesel will increase the efficiency of an engine, reduce its opacity, but the amount of emitted nitrogen oxide will be increased.

Biodiesel + Methanol

Using methanol looks quite promising, due to its relative cheapness in the first place.

With increasing concentration of methanol in the mixture, the decrease in density and viscosity is observed.  Flash point in a closed crucible decreases.  By applying methanol into the inlet pipe even in its minimal concentration (0.35% by volume), the efficiency of a diesel engine coefficient will be sharply decreased.  The engine will become rough.  But when methanol concentration is increased to 15% by volume, the performance characteristics of a diesel engine are quite satisfactory.

Plant oil + Diesel fuel

Scientists have proven that a diesel engine can run on a mixture of vegetable oil and diesel fuel.  German companies were the first to make their mark in this direction.  At present, the engines have been already developed to operate on diesel fuel and plant oil.  A distinctive feature of these aggregates is the need for initial warm-up on diesel fuel with the subsequent transition to plant oil in an automatic mode.  The highest efficiency value can be achieved by adding about 30% (by volume) of plant oil to biodiesel.

Diesel fuel + vegetable-based additives

Plant-derived additives are added to diesel fuel to improve fuel efficiency and improve environmental performance.  If the type of an additive and its concentration are chosen correctly, it is possible to achieve the increase in diesel engine efficiency and to reduce harmful emissions.

How to mix?

The GlobeCore USB plant for on-line mixing and dissolution of any liquids is intended for mixing two to five separate components, in particular, for preparation of multicomponent mixed motor fuels, including additives of vegetable origin, bioethanol, and mixing biodiesel with diesel fuel.

When using conventional methods of blending, known today, fuel tends to break down when separate components are added to it.

The peculiarity of the installation is the fact that applying an injection method and hydrodynamic shock can increase the cetane number of fuel.  The resulting product does not break down within 180 days (guaranteed).

Modern hydrodynamic (inline) mixing plants have proven themselves in industrial use as cost-effective, accurate and sustainable means of production of high-quality motor fuels with optimal cost.  The achievable cost savings and increase of production profitability, compared to conventional technology of  mixing components in mixing vessels, can accelerate the return on investment up to 60% per year and provide a return on the project during a period of one year or less.

Biodiesel fuel: applications, production and advantages

Biodiesl fuel is made of vegetable oil and methanol. Ethanol or isopropyl alcohol can be used instead of the latter. The process is based on transesterification of the product in the ratio of 200 kg of methanol per 1 ton of oil. Sodium or potassium hydroxide is also a component in the production process. Process occurs at 60ºС at normal pressure.

To make the fuel compliant with the quality standards, the following conditions must be met:

  • content of methyl esters in the fuel must not be less than 96%;
  • additional purification of methyl ester from methanol. This is due to the fact that the latter is usually used in excess for rapid and complete transeesterification;
  • methyl esters must be purified from saponification products. If this is not done, the soaps will quickly clog filters, forming tar and carbon deposits. Separation and centrifuging methods are not efficient, water or sorbent wash is required;
  • methyl esters must be dried. Water promotes development of microbes and formation of fatty acids, reducing the quality of the biodiesel;
  • biodiesel should not be stored longer than three months. After three months the fuel may break down.

Using biodiesel

Biodiesel fuel can be used straight or blended with regular diesel. In the United states, fuels are marked as follows: first the letter B, as a general designation, then the percentage of biodiesel in the blend. B2, for instance, means that the blend contains 98% of diesel and 2% biodiesel fuel. Using high quality blended fuels does not require any design change of the engine.

Biodiesel cetane number must not be less than 51. Mineral diesel has 42-45 cetane number.

Biodiesel sources

The raw materials for biodiesel production are usually vegetable or algae oil. European producers prefer rapeseed, while the most common feedstock in the US is soybean oil, Canada mostly uses canola (a kind of rapeseed), Brazil – castor oil, Indonesia and the Philippines – palm oil. Animal fat, tallow etc can also be used.

Oil yield per one hectare (data: The Global Petroleum Club)

Material

kg/hectare

Liters/hectare

Corn

145

172

Cashew

148

176

Oats

183

217

Lupine

195

232

Calendula

256

305

Cotton

273

325

Hemp

305

363

Soy

375

446

Coffee

386

459

Flax

402

478

Hazel

405

482

Pumpkin seeds

449

534

Coriander

450

536

Mustard

481

572

Camelina

490

583

Sesame

585

696

Safflower

655

779

Rice

696

828

Sunflower

800

952

Cocoa

863

1026

Peanut

890

1059

Poppy seed

978

1163

Rapeseed

1000

1190

Olive

1019

1212

Castor plant

1188

1413

Pecan

1505

1791

Jojoba

1528

1818

Jatropha

1590

1892

Macadamia

1887

2246

Brazil nut

2010

2392

Avocado

2217

2638

Coconut

2260

2689

Oil palm

5000

5950

Algae

95000

The world leaders in biodiesel production are the US, Germany, France, Italy and Spain. For instance, 2611 million liters of biodiesel were produced in the US in 2008. European production figures are more modest. German production at the same time period was 5302 thousand tons of the product.

Applications

If biodiesel fuel is spilled into water, it cannot harm plants and animals. It is fully biodegradable, as opposed to petroleum based fuels. Research shows that biodiesel in soil or water is completely decomposed by microbes in 28 days, making the risk of polluting rivers and lakes minimal.

Besides, the use of biodiesel significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. High flashpoint (above 100ºC) makes this fuel relatively safe.

Biodiesel production equipment

GlobeCore has developed and supplies biodiesel production lines. GlobeCore biodiesel plants are built in production capacity range from 1000 to 16000 liters per hour, working on any type of vegetable oil or animal fat. This fuel can also be made form used vegetable oil and algae oil.

GlobeCore biodiesel production complex is designed for transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat by highly intensive mixing with catalyst and subsequent dry polishing. The product fully complies with the European EN 14214 and the American ASTM standards.

The unique technology allows production without a lengthy process of resetting the equipment for various oils or fats. All components are built from stainless steel in ex-proof design.

The biodiesel production line consists of the following components:

  • stream oil heater;
  • biodiesel reactor;
  • biodiesel settling tanks and output pumps;
  • methanol recovery section;
  • purification and filtration section.

The raw material is filtered and purified, then pumped to the oil heater to raise its temperature. The hot oil is then pumped to the biodiesel reactor. The reactor is also supplied with alkali solution and methanol. After hydrodynamic mixing and the reaction of oil with the alkali and methanol, the reactor output is crude biodiesel.

It is supplied to the settling tanks, where water and glycerin phase is separate and pumped away.

The remaining biodiesel is pumped to the methanol recovery section, where the product is dried under vacuum.

The final polishing of biodiesel occurs in the filtration and purification section. Passing through a layer of ion-exchange resin, the residual methanol is removed from biodiesel. Particulate matter is removed by a system of filters.

GlobeCore biodiesel process has the following advantages:

  • low power consumption;
  • near-instant transesterification reaction;
  • transportation mobility and simple installation thanks to modular design;
  • no waste stream. Glycerin phase can be used for many purposes: power generation, fertilizer production etc;
  • simple operation and high efficiency.

What are the advantages of biodiesel?

Biodiesel fuel has the following advantages:

  • good lubrication properties;
  • high cetane number;
  • extended engine life without upgrades;
  • relative safety due to high ignition temperature;
  • no harmful environmental effects.

Biodiesel what is it? Biodiesel processor ?

biodiesel what is it

Biodiesel processor? Biodiesel is recently developed type of biofuel, made of replaceable staple. It is very similar to conventional diesel, used in motor vehicles, but it is not extracted from under the ground. Alternatively it is produced from vegetables, nuts and seeds. Main cultures used for biodiesel production are peanuts, sunflower, rape seeds, and soybeans. Literately, any vegetable oil can be used for biodiesel production. Also it can be made from industrial oils, such as restaurant grease. Number of scientific institutions comprehensively checked biodiesel in motor vehicles. And as tests reveal  biodiesel is less pollutive than normal diesel and performs almost as good. There is only slight difference in range of 3-5 percent (what distance a car can go on a certain amount of fuel). There is no need for engine alterations, so it can be used in any diesel powered machinery, pure, or as a mixture with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel can also be used in number of other appliances and equipment.

1. Low-Impact Living Initiative (LILI) is a non-profit organization whose mission is to help people reduce their impact on the environment, concerned only about recycling domestic and restaurant grease. As they say in their statement: It is very bed concept, to extend agricultural land to produce staple for biodiesel, while there is significant shortage of food in the world. Some producers of biodiesel, now using palm oil from enormous farming estates in West Africa or SE Asia. We believe that biodiesel made from this staple is even more harmful to nature than conventional diesel, and evidently more so. For more details, please visit Biofuel Watch web site.

2. This surely does not mean that we are supporting substitution of petroleum diesel by biodiesel for the entire fleet of cars, lorries and boats in the world, as there is not enough domestic and industrial grease to satisfy the demand. But this is certainly can be done locally. It is obvious that we need to limit the use of fuel, design more economical engines, share cars with colleagues to go to work, use buses and coaches more often, spend vacations at home, and work from own houses.
3. Climate change: biggest cause of greenhouse effect is the increasing level of carbon dioxide in the air, which allows shortwave length ultraviolet sun rays to reach the Earth surface, but prevents it from reflecting back to the space. Greenhouse gas (CO2) is the main component of exhaust gases produced by diesel and petrol engines. Using biodiesel as a fuel also produces carbon dioxide, but because biodiesel is produced from plants which use CO2 to grow, impact on environment is considerably lower.

4. Emissions: burning biodiesel produces fewer quantities of other harmful chemicals for example CO (carbon monoxide), particulate matters and alkanes. Level of N2O may be the same or higher, but is significantly cut down by catalytic converter and changes to ignition timing. Along with evidential benefits to the environment, it also reduces health risk for those who are frequently exposed to exhaust gases, due to the nature of their profession: road workers, waste collectors and others. Biodiesel exhaust odour is better than conventional diesel and it extends engine life, because of its lubricating properties.

5. Waste reduction: Biodiesel can be produced from used cooking oil. It is estimated that over 100000 tonnes of restaurant grease produced in the United Kingdom every year.

6. Spills: Because there is no need to ship crude oil from overseas, the possibility of leakage is eliminated. Leakages from cars and lorries are safe due to biodegradable nature of the fuel.

7. Energy balance: for every part of energy needed to create biodiesel, 3 parts of energy are created. While conventional diesel ratio is 1:1.

8. What can be done? Biodiesel can be bought, or produced at home. Biodiesel production equipment can be purchased jointly with neighbors or friends to satisfy the need of a few households. It is advised to use pure biodiesel on summer and half biodiesel half conventional mix during winter month. It is necessarily to change cars fuel filter after 500 or 1000 miles of running on biodiesel, because it can dissolve sediment from the tank. However if you always use biodiesel, fuel filter will last as normal.

9. Where to buy? Now, biodiesel available only at limited numbers of petrol stations. But it can be bought and delivered in special tanks, called IBCs.

10. Producing biodiesel: biodiesel can be produced at home. Staple for it could be restaurant grease, which is easily obtainable from local businesses for a little or no charge. Other components required for production are not difficult to get hold of. Ready-made biodiesel equipment is quite expensive, but with a bit of DIY skills it is possible to make a processor yourself using two oil barrels, couple of pipes, a pump, and some fittings. To make biodiesel, oil supposed to be put together with Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide (catalysts) and Isopropyl alcohol. After a certain period of time (usually about 8 hours) glycerin gets separated from the blend and settles at the bottom of a barrel. It can be used for various purposes, for example soap making. Biodiesel forms the layer at the top of a barrel. It is important to separate biodiesel from solid particles and water. Producers of biodiesel responsible for duty payments to HM Revenue and Customs. To increase the level of production, UK government lowered taxes by 20 pence per litter in 2002. In June 2007, tax was lifted completely for domestic producers (2500 or less litters annually). There was also change to number of returns that medium-sized companies shall send to HM Revenue and Customs yearly, from twelve to four.

11. Because of dangerous nature of chemicals needed to make biodiesel, it is necessarily to follow strict Health and Safety rules.

12. It is possible to buy biodiesel production equipment, as well as to make it yourself. Currently, there are courses available from LILI, which cover all stages of biodiesel production.

13. Sodium and Potassium Hydroxide as well as Isopropyl alcohol, which needed to produce biodiesel, can be purchased from Trinity Research. This company also collects unwanted glycerin free of charge.